Other Information Sources on Biosecurity:

  • The APHIS fact sheet “Routine Biosecurity Measures for On-site Farm Visits or Other Livestock Concentration Points” (www.aphis.usda.gov/oa/fmd/fmdbiose.html).
  • Institutions of higher education (e.g., Purdue University’s National Biosecurity Resource Center for Animal Health Emergencies; www.biosecuritycenter.org.)
  • State agricultural extension services. Examples of available information include the Ohio State University Extension fact sheets entitled, “Biosecurity for Youth Livestock Exhibitors,” “Biosecurity Fundamentals for Extension Personnel,” “Disinfection in On-Farm Biosecurity Procedures,” and “On-Farm Biosecurity: Traffic Control and Sanitation” (www.ohioline.osu.edu).
  • The Web sites of the agricultural ministries or departments of other countries. Examples are seen in the Web sites of the United Kingdom’s Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (www.defra.gov.uk) (click on “Animal Health and Welfare” and then on “Biosecurity and Farm Visits”) and of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (www.inspection.gc.ca; click on “English,” “Foot and Mouth Disease,” and “Farm Biosecurity…A Common Sense Guide.”

  Suggested APHIS Action Items:


  1. Prepare and distribute “barn cards” for lay employees. These are concise cards with clinical signs, reporting systems, and phone numbers.
  2. Prepare, for distribution to the public, information addressing the concern of “what will happen if I report?”
  3. Prepare information to distribute to private practitioners, including reportable clinical signs and reporting contact numbers.
  4. Create alert posters for livestock markets, slaughterhouses, buying stations, and feed stores.
  5. Prepare signs that can be posted at entrances to operations in case of red alerts.

Protecting Our Livestock and Poultry Industries

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,
Veterinary Services
March 2003

An outbreak of a foreign animal disease in the United States could seriously damage the domestic livestock and poultry industries.  For example, eradication of a highly pathogenic avian influenza in the United States, following an outbreak in 1983-84, resulted in the destruction of more than 17 million birds and cost taxpayers nearly $65 million.

Keeping these serious animal diseases out of the United States is the responsibility of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service’s (APHIS) Veterinary Services (VS) unit.  Within VS, the Emergency Programs (EP) staff provides expertise on exotic animal diseases, ensures adequate disease surveillance within the United States, maintains a high level of emergency preparedness, and provides the needed resources to respond to and eliminate disease outbreaks in the United States and its territories.

In order to effectively protect against such outbreaks, EP needs the help of veterinarians, livestock producers, and State and local governments

IMMEDIATELY contact your Area Veterinarian in Charge or your State Veterinarian   (contact information is attached), if you notice any of the following symptoms:

Respiratory: sneezing, gasping for air, nasal discharge, coughing;
Digestive: greenish, watery diarrhea;
Nervous: depression, muscular tremors, drooping wings, twisting of head and neck, circling, paralysis;
Partial to complete drop in egg production;
Production of thin-shelled eggs;
Swelling of the tissues around the eyes and in the neck;
Sudden death;
Increased death loss in a flock.

Rising temperatures;
Ruptured vesicles (either clear or cloudy fluid discharge);
Sticky, foamy, stringy saliva;
Reduced feed consumption (perhaps because of painful tongue and mouth lesions);
Lameness with reluctance to move;
Abrupt drop in milk flow;
Low conception rates.

Muscle tremors;
Respiratory distress;
Sudden death.

Cervids (Deer/Elk)
Weight loss;
Behavioral changes;
Lowering of head;
Blank facial expression;
Repetitive walking in set patterns.

Additional Information

For additional fact sheets, brochures, and publications on biosecurity, please refer to the following Web sites:


For more information on how to protect your livestock and poultry from dangerous foreign animal diseases, contact:

U.S. Department of Agriculture
APHIS, VS, National Animal Health Programs
4700 River Road, Unit 33
Riverdale, MD 20737-1231
Telephone (301) 734-8093, Fax (301) 734-8818, or visit our Web site at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, or marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA's TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD).

To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326–W, Whitten Building, 14th and Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410 or call (202)720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.