The Congressional Budget Office estimates that the Secure America Through Verification and Enforcement Act of 2007 could cost $30 billion or more to implement between 2009 and 2018.

The immigration bill's estimate includes more than $17 billion in lost tax revenues as it requires employers verify employees' eligibility through the E-Verify system, prompting employers to pay more undocumented workers outside of the tax system. The estimate includes $30 million in direct spending for salaries of new federal judges; and more than $23 billion in discretionary spending such as additional personnel, more detention space and other related needs due to the government's increased use of E-Verify system-- this is dependent on appropriations.

The bill (H.R. 4088), would impose private-sector mandates. Compliance costs, based on Bureau of Labor Statistics data, exceed federally established thresholds for unfunded mandates in at least one of its first five years. It also would impose intergovernmental mandates, but the Congressional Budget Office expects the aggregate costs for state, local and tribal governments to comply with those would not exceed annual thresholds.

Some believe the timing of the bill and the associated costs is bad for a variety of sectors. At a time when the federal budget is limited, there's talk of a possible recession, and the meat and poultry industries are under duress from high grain inputs and trade barriers — shackling businesses with an unfunded federal mandate is not wise, said Janet Riley with the American Meat Institute.