Commentary: Danger: Organic

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The threat of a long-forgotten parasite returning in the form of contaminated meat from organically raised livestock has made some waves in the medical community.

Not so much within animal agriculture.

It’s not like conventional producers and processors are going to launch some kind of mud-slinging campaign to demonize organic operators. Unfortunately, that’s typically what the organic industry does: Pretend that conventional meat and dairy products are suspect, perhaps even dangerous, due to the fact that livestock  not raised organically are “pumped full” of drugs and hormones.

The study, published in the May 22 issue ofClinical Infectious Diseases, found that organic meat can be a source of Toxoplasmosis gondii, a single-celled parasite that used to be a significant problem in undercooked pork—like, 50 years ago.

When pigs were allowed to forage for food back in the good old days of non-corporate, family farming, they often ate food contaminated with infected feces from cats—the definitive host for the parasite—or consumed wild animals or birds that contained toxoplasmosis oocysts. That’s why the “tradition” of overcooking pork to a leathery well-done texture became established. It was necessary destroy parasites in all the pork.

However, when pork farmers converted to modern methods of production to eliminate foraging and began feeding the animals a scientifically devised diet, the incidence of toxoplasmosis was drastically reduced. With many organic producers, the trend is toward raising free-range animals—especially pigs and lamb—and that’s renewed the risk of contracting toxoplasmosis. Indeed, wild game, such as venison, is considered a potentially significant source of the toxoplasmosis parasite.

“The new trend in the production of free-range, organically raised meat could increase the risk of Toxoplasma gondii contamination of meat,” the authors wrote.

The researchers pointed out that eating undercooked meat, especially pork, lamb and wild game, is one of the main ways people become infected with the toxoplasma parasite.

The symptoms of toxoplasmosis include swollen lymph glands, aches and pains that can linger as long as a month at a time and a feeling of illness similar to what usually accompanies the flu. Although clinical treatment is usually not needed in normal, healthy people, some patients do require medication. Many people carry the parasite but do not become ill or show symptoms because their immune systems are able to withstand any toxic effects.

The real danger is that the parasite can infect the placenta and the fetus in pregnant women, causing stillbirth and neurological damage.

According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, toxoplasmosis infections cause 4,000 hospitalizations and as many as 300 deaths annually in the United States.

The threat of parasitic presence is greatest in raw ground beef, rare cooked lamb, unpasteurized goat’s milk, wild game and raw shellfish such as clams, mussels, and oysters. That’s one of the primary reasons why USDA recommends final internal cooked temperatures of:

  • 145 degrees F (with a three-minute standing time) for whole-muscle cuts of pork chops, pork roasts, lamb chops and beef roasts
  • 160 degrees F for all ground meats
  • 165 degrees F for all poultry

Freezing meat at sub-zero temperatures for several days can reduce the Toxoplasmosis oocysts in contaminated meat but it’s not fail safe, not to mention that most household freezers are incapable of keeping temperatures that low.

In the end, the threat of contracting a disease that’s rarely fatal and relatively rare—even in organic meats—isn’t going to get any organic aficionados too upset. Nor should it.

For all the hype with which the organic industry loves to cover itself, its value is that of a niche market that helps keep smaller producers in business and offers consumers who might otherwise abandon animal proteins an alternative that keeps them in the carnivores’ camp.

That is of value to the public and to the industry.

The threat of a microscopic parasite shouldn’t be a reason to undermine any of that.

The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of Dan Murphy, a veteran food-industry journalist and commentator.

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Bruce E Arkwright, Jr    
United States  |  June, 11, 2012 at 02:35 PM

If you have/must drug up my food just so I can eat it, there is something wrong going on, or it's something I should not eat in the first place!

Idaho  |  June, 11, 2012 at 07:18 PM

Wow, how 'noble' of you to take the high road regarding the 'dangers' of organic meat. Nevertheless, I believe you have your parasites mixed up regarding why pork was cooked to leather consistency (and one of the most dreaded meals of my childhood). The parasite my mom was attempting to incinerate was Trichinella, not Toxoplasma. Two different creatures but I guess both begin with T. Clearly, the recently published paper caught your attention as a potential slam to the organic crowd, but I read it to say that the risk from undercooked organic meat was higher, not that undercooked confinement reared animal meat carries no risk. Your gloating regarding a perceived negative for the organic industry is unseemly.

Ohio  |  June, 12, 2012 at 09:48 AM

Diana, sorry to hear you have not been keeping up on research. Trichinella has also basically disappeared from pork (has not been found in years) as production has moved off dirt and onto concrete. Also all pigs on dirt are infected with other parasites such as round worms, lung worms, kidney worms etc. These can be removed quite effectively by using one of several dewormers. However, organic producers can not use them because they are classified as antibiotics. Which means all organic pigs are infected. This is also a reason organic or natural production is actually bad for animal welfare. You infect the pigs with parasites then refuse to treat them. This is a specific trial on Toxoplasma which confirms moving back to dirt without antibiotics has actually resulted in an increase in the level of infection. Exactly as would be expected with the other internal parasites.

SD  |  June, 12, 2012 at 09:16 PM

Bruce, there is not need to "drug up" animals, and is misleading at best to say that is routinely the case. Yes, young animals can and do become ill, just as do children when they go to school or day care centers where they are exposed to the germs of another family. It is inhumane to NOT treat them with medications like the injections children must have before attending school, or to ease symptoms of respiratory disease. Actually, calves can get pneumonia from dust stirred up while walking through dry pastures. During times of very warm days and cool nights common in many areas of the cattle growing states right now, cattle are very susceptible to pneumonia. NOT from comingling in feedlots, but even on remote pastures where there are 30 ore more acres per cow. There are waiting periods to assure all traces of drugs are gone from the animal before slaughter. Any found will force the meat to be removed from the food supply....and it does happen, though the vast majority of ranchers are very careful to follow the rules.

kansas  |  June, 14, 2012 at 10:26 PM

Wow! Just wow! Bruce and Diana immediately jump in to prove Mr. Murphy's point that the Organismic freak fringe cannot help themselves when it comes to demonizing anything and anyone who dares dispute their "religious" views. Such a hoot to see their spittle-laced rants appear here... where we all know what kind of lunacy they're spewing. It's too bad, but Mr. Murphy is also right in saying that traditional livestock producers will not lower themselves to use the vile and reprehensible tactics of the faux-hippie natural food hucksters, and condemn the liars for what they are. Pandering to the manufactured fears of ignorant consumers might be good business for them, but it is still repulsive and should be unecessary if their products had real value. Oh well, it's still good to see Bruce & Diana here exercising their 1st ammendment right to be poorly informed and make themselves look silly in public.


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