Livestock producers need to plan now to meet two key compliance dates for confined animal feeding operations.

Both deadlines result from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s update on rules dealing with CAFOs. The rules deal mainly with how manure is managed to protect water quality. They place increased emphasis on manure management at the confinement site where it’s produced and on farmland where it’s applied.

By Feb. 13, 2006, all large CAFOs must apply for a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit, notes Rick Koelsch, livestock bioenvironmental engineer at the University of Nebraska’s Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources. That includes large CAFOs that already have a current state operator’s permit.

“Under the updated rules, animals housed under a roof and those in open lots are potentially CAFOs,” says Koelsch. “Many facilities will now need this federal permit, where historically it was applied only to outdoor feedlots.”

For swine, operations with one-time capacity of 2,500 animals weighing more than 55 pounds, are automatically considered large CAFOs. Operations with fewer animals may need a permit if there is a direct connection between the animal housing and surface water.

Another key compliance date is Dec. 31, 2006. By then, all large CAFOs will need a fully implemented nutrient-management plan. These management plans address how the nutrients in manure are stored and used to fertilize crops to prevent water pollution.

“The environmental regulatory community is serious about industry compliance with these regulations,” says Koelsch. “That’s why it’s important to begin complying with these rules immediately.”

While the deadlines seem far off, applying for the federal permit and bringing production facilities up to required standards can take at least a year.

“I would anticipate that we will see some examples made of producers who don’t meet the deadlines,” he notes. “That’s why it’s important to use resources available to apply for permits and comply with these environmental regulations.”

The University of Nebraska, and most land-grant universities, are providing information about nutrient planning and CAFOs. For example, you can go to for more information. The Web site includes software tools for preparing nutrient-management plans, including Nebraska’s Manure Use Plan; sample forms for required records; and nutrient-management planning workshop opportunities.

The site also includes a Calibration and Manure Sampling Kit, of which 15 are available for loan to livestock and poultry producers. For more information, visit

Many states are holding related informational meetings — check out specific sites for your state.

Additional resources include:

  • CAFO Fact Sheets, developed by a team of land-grant university and Natural Resource Conservation Service representatives. The CAFO fact sheets can be found at
  • Livestock and Poultry Environmental Stewardship curriculum, a national producer-targeted review of environmental management options for animal producers, which Koelsch helped develop, is at